core: allow custom panics and exception catching
This change introduces two new mechanismes for executing user code when
an exception occurs.
* This first is the custom panic message, which usually displays "System
ERROR". The function that performs this task can now be user-defined.
It is also run in user mode because the exception handler rte's into
it, allowing it to execute any kind of interrupt-inducing task. The
behavior is undefined if this function raises an exception.
* The second is an exception-catching function, which (when set) is
called every time an exception occurs, and is granted the chance of
handling the exception to continue execution normally. It can be used
in various ways, the most primitive of which is recording the
exception and going back. It runs in interrupt mode and must not raise
any kind of exception.