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let the user allocate contexts locally

This incompatible change modifies the allocation method for contexts.
Instead of managing a set of IDs in an malloc()-backed array, contexts
can now be allocated on the stack or static RAM.

Contexts are values of type [prof_t] and can be initialized to the value
provided by prof_make(). lvalues to contexts replace context IDs.

Finally, prof_exec() no longer requires a context to be specified, it
creates one on the fly.
master 2.0
Lephenixnoir 4 months ago
parent
commit
5be56fe2eb
Signed by: Lephenixnoir GPG Key ID: 1BBA026E13FC0495
3 changed files with 131 additions and 174 deletions
  1. +78
    -109
      README.md
  2. +10
    -38
      libprof.c
  3. +43
    -27
      libprof.h

+ 78
- 109
README.md View File

@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
# libprof: A performance profiling library for gint
libprof is a small gint library that can be used to time and profile the
execution of an add-in. Using it, one can record the time spent in one or
several functions to identify performance bottlenecks in an application.
libprof is a small gint library that times and profiles the execution of an
add-in. It is useful to record the time spent in one or several functions and
to identify performance bottlenecks in an application.
libprof's measurements are accurate down to the microsecond-level thanks to
precise hardware timers, so it can also be used to time even small portions of
@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ code.
## Building
libprof is built and installed only once for both fx-9860G and fx-CG 50. The
The dependencies are:
dependencies are:
* A GCC cross-compiler for a SuperH architecture
* The [gint kernel](/Lephenixnoir/gint)
@ -37,153 +37,122 @@ will need to make and install twice.
## Basic use
To access the library, include the `<libprof.h>` header file.
To access the library, include the `<libprof.h>` header file and call
`prof_init()` somewhere so that libprof has access to a precise timer. If no
such timer is available, `prof_init()` returns non-zero (but normally either 2
or 3 of the TMU are available when an add-in starts).
```c
#include <libprof.h>
prof_init();
```
For each function you want to time, libprof will create a counter. At the start
of the program, you need to specify how many functions (libprof calls them
*contexts*) you will be timing, so that libprof can allocate enough memory.
libprof also needs one of gint's timer to actually measure time; it selects one
of TMU0, TMU1 and TMU2 which are the only ones suited for this precise job. The
available timer with the smallest interrupt priority is selected.
This initialization happens in the `prof_init()` function.
```c
/* Initialize libprof for 13 contexts (automatically selects a timer) */
prof_init(13);
```
You can then measure the execution time of a function by calling `prof_enter()`
at the beginning and `prof_end()` at the end. You just need to "name" the
function by giving its context ID, which is any number between 0 and the number
of contexts passed to `prof_init()` (here 0 to 12).
To measure execution time, create a profiling context with `prof_make()`, then
call `prof_enter()` at the beginning of the code to time and `prof_leave()` at
the end.
```c
void function5(void)
void function_to_time(void)
{
prof_enter(5);
prof_t prof = prof_make();
prof_enter(prof);
/* Do stuff... */
prof_leave(5);
prof_leave(prof);
}
```
This will add `function5()`'s execution time to the 5th counter, so if the
function is called several times the total execution time will be recorded.
This way, at the end of the program, you can look at the counters to see where
most of the time has been spent.
To retrieve the total execution time of a function, use `prof_time()` :
The context records the time spent between calls to `prof_enter()` and
`prof_leave()`. It can be entered multiple times and will simply accumulate the
time spent in its counter. When the counter is not running, you can query
recorded time with `prof_time()`.
```c
uint32_t total_function5_us = prof_time(5);
uint32_t total_function_us = prof_time(prof);
```
This time is measured in microseconds, even though the timers are actually more
This time is returned in microseconds, even though the timers are slightly more
precise than this. Note that the overhead of `prof_enter()` and `prof_leave()`
is usually less than 1 microsecond, so the time is very close to the actual
time spent in the function even if the context is frequently entered and left.
is usually less than 1 microsecond, so the measure is very close to the
wall-clock time spent in the function even if the context is frequently used.
At the end of the program, free the resources of the library by calling
`prof_quit()`.
At the end of the program or whenever you need the timer that libprof is
holding, call `prof_quit()` to free the resources. This will make the timer
available to `timer_setup()` again.
```c
prof_quit();
```
## Managing context numbers
The number of contexts must be set for all execution and all context IDs must
be between 0 and this number (excluded). Managing the numbers by hand is error-
prone and can lead to memory errors.
A simple way of managing context numbers without risking an error is to use an
enumeration.
```c
enum {
/* Whatever function you need */
PROFCTX_FUNCTION1 = 0,
PROFCTX_FUNCTION2,
PROFCTX_FUNCTION3,
PROFCTX_COUNT,
};
```
## Recursive functions
Enumerations will assign a value to all the provided names, and increment by
one each time. So for example here `PROFCTX_FUNCTION2` is equal to `1` and
`PROFCTX_COUNT` is equal to `3`. As you can see this is conveniently equal to
the number of contexts, which makes it simple to initialize the library:
The profiler context keeps track of recursive calls so that functions that
enter and leave recursively can be timed as well. The only difference with the
basic example is that we need to make sure a single context is used (instead
of creating a new one in each stack frame). Making it static is enough.
```c
prof_init(PROFCTX_COUNT);
```
void recursive_function_to_time(void)
{
static prof_t prof = prof_make();
prof_enter(prof);
Then you can use context names instead of numbers:
/* Stuff... */
recursive_function_to_time();
/* Stuff... */
```c
prof_enter(PROFCTX_FUNCTION1);
/* Do stuff... */
prof_leave(PROFCTX_FUNCTION1);
prof_leave(prof);
}
```
If you want to use a new context, you just need to add a name in the
enumeration (anywhere but after `PROFCTX_COUNT`) and all IDs plus the
initialization call will be updated automatically.
However it makes it somewhat difficult to retrieve the elapsed time because it
is hidden withing the function's name scope. Making it global can help.
## Timing a single execution
`prof_enter()` and `prof_leave()` will add the measured execution time to the
context counter. Sometimes you want to make individual measurements instead of
adding all calls together. To achieve this effect, clear the counter before
the measure using `prof_clear()`.
Here is an example of a function `exec_time_us()` that times the execution of a
function `f` passed as parameter.
```c
uint32_t exec_time_us(void (*f)(void))
{
int ctx = PROFCTX_EXEC_TIME_US;
prof_clear(ctx);
prof_enter(ctx);
In many cases applications just need to measure a single piece of code once and
get the resulting time. `prof_exec()` is a shortcut macro that does exactly
that, creating a temporary context and returning elapsed time.
f();
prof_leave(ctx);
return prof_time(ctx);
}
```
uint32_t elapsed_us = prof_exec({
scene_graph_render();
});
```
## Exploiting the measure's precision
The overhead of `prof_enter()` and `prof_leave()` is usually less than a
microsecond, but the starting time of your benchmark might count (loading data
from memory to initialize arrays, performing function calls...). In this case,
the best you can do is measure the time difference between two similar calls.
The macro expands to a short code block that wraps the argument and returns
the `prof_time()` of the temporary context.
If you need something even more precise then you can access libprof's counter
array directly to get the timer-tick value itself:
## Using the timers's full precision
```c
uint32_t elapsed_timer_tick = prof_elapsed[ctx];
```
Hardware timers run at 7-15 MHz depending on the calculator model, so the time
measure it slightly more precise than what `prof_time()` shows you. You can
access that value through the `elapsed` field of a context object.
The frequency of this tick is PΦ/4, where the value of PΦ can be obtained by
querying gint's clock module:
The value is a count of ticks that occur at a frequency of PΦ/4, where the
value of PΦ can be obtained by querying gint's CPG driver:
```c
#include <gint/clock.h>
uint32_t tick_freq = clock_freq()->Pphi_f / 4;
```
One noteworthy phenomenon is the startup cost. The first few measurements are
always less precise, probably due to cache effects. I frequently have a first
measurement with an additional 100 us of execution time and 3 us of overhead,
which subsequent tests remove. So it is expected for the first few points of
data to lie outside the range of the next.
Note that the overhead of `prof_enter()` and `prof_leave()` is usually less
than a microsecond, but more than a few timer ticks.
Due in part to caching effects, the first measurement for a given code sequence
is likely to be larger than the other ones. I have seen effects such as 3 µs
for a no-op (cache misses in libprof's code) and 100 µs for real cases (cache
misses in the code itself). Make sure to make several measurements and use
serious statistical methods!
## Overclock interference
Contexts store timer tick counts, which are converted to microsecond delays
only when `prof_time()` is called. Do not mix measurements performed at
different overclock settings as the results will be erroneous.
What you can do is call `prof_time()` and reset the context (by assigning it
`prof_make()`) before switching clock settings, then add up the microsecond
delays when the execution is over.

+ 10
- 38
libprof.c View File

@ -1,51 +1,34 @@
#include <gint/timer.h>
#include <gint/clock.h>
#include <gint/mpu/tmu.h>
#include <gint/std/stdlib.h>
#include <gint/hardware.h>
#include <libprof.h>
/* Recursion depth of each function currently being executed */
uint8_t *prof_rec = NULL;
/* Time that has elapsed within each function; the value for a given function
is only relevant when it is not executing, due to optimizations */
uint32_t *prof_elapsed = NULL;
/* Timer counter */
uint32_t volatile *prof_tcnt = NULL;
/* Timer ID */
static int prof_timer = -1;
/* prof_init(): Initialize the profiler's data and timer */
int prof_init(int context_count)
/* prof_init(): Initialize the profiler's timer */
int prof_init(void)
{
prof_rec = malloc(context_count * sizeof *prof_rec);
prof_elapsed = malloc(context_count * sizeof *prof_elapsed);
/* Get a TMU with the exact constant 0xffffffff */
int timer = -1;
for(int t = 2; t >= 0 && timer == -1; t--)
{
timer = timer_setup(t, 0xffffffff, NULL);
}
if(!prof_rec || !prof_elapsed || timer == -1)
if(timer == -1)
{
prof_quit();
return 1;
}
/* Fix the configuration done by gint by disabling the interrupt */
if(isSH3())
{
SH7705_TMU.TMU[timer].TCR.UNIE = 0;
prof_tcnt = &SH7705_TMU.TMU[timer].TCNT;
}
else
{
SH7305_TMU.TMU[timer].TCR.UNIE = 0;
prof_tcnt = &SH7305_TMU.TMU[timer].TCNT;
}
/* Keep the address of the TCNT register */
prof_tcnt = isSH3()
? &SH7705_TMU.TMU[timer].TCNT
: &SH7305_TMU.TMU[timer].TCNT;
timer_start(timer);
prof_timer = timer;
@ -53,27 +36,16 @@ int prof_init(int context_count)
return 0;
}
/* prof_quit(): Free the profiler's data and timer */
/* prof_quit(): Free the profiler's timer */
void prof_quit(void)
{
if(prof_timer >= 0) timer_stop(prof_timer);
if(prof_rec) free(prof_rec);
if(prof_elapsed) free(prof_elapsed);
prof_timer = -1;
prof_rec = NULL;
prof_elapsed = NULL;
}
//---
// Post-measurement analysis
//---
/* prof_time(): Time spent in a given context, in microseconds */
uint32_t prof_time(int ctx)
uint32_t prof_time(prof_t prof)
{
int Pphi = clock_freq()->Pphi_f;
uint64_t time = prof_elapsed[ctx];
return (time * 4 * 1000000) / Pphi;
return ((uint64_t)prof.elapsed * 4 * 1000000) / Pphi;
}

+ 43
- 27
libprof.h View File

@ -6,37 +6,43 @@
#define LIBPROF_LIBPROF
#include <stdint.h>
#include <gint/defs/attributes.h>
//---
// Initialization
//---
/* prof_init(): Initialize the profiler's data and timer
/* prof_init(): Initialize the profiler's timer
Initializes [prof_rec] and [prof_time] (see below) with enough elements to
hold all the context IDs. Context IDs should be numbered from 0 to [n-1];
due to speed requirements array bounds are not checked so be careful.
Starts a timer to count time. libprof automatically selects a TMU and tries
to use TMU2 before TMU1 before TMU0 so that high-priority interrupts remain
available, and sets an accurate clock configuration.
Also starts a timer to count time. libprof automatically selects a TMU and
tries to use TMU2 before TMU1 before TMU0 so that high-priority interrupts
remain available, and sets an accurate clock configuration.
Returns non-zero if no timer is available. */
int prof_init(void);
@context_count Number of different contexts that will be measured
Returns non-zero if a setup error occurs or no timer is available. */
int prof_init(int context_count);
/* prof_quit(): Free the profiler's data and timer */
/* prof_quit(): Free the profiler's timer */
void prof_quit(void);
//---
// Runtime time measurement
//---
/* Recursion depth of each function currently being executed */
extern uint8_t *prof_rec;
/* Time that has elapsed within each function; the value for a given function
is only relevant when it is not executing, due to optimizations */
extern uint32_t *prof_elapsed;
/* Context object, has an elasped delay and a recursion level. This object can
be created on the stack of a function that measures its execution time,
except if the function is recursive, in which case it should be either
static or global. */
typedef struct prof_t
{
uint32_t rec;
uint32_t elapsed;
} GPACKED(4) prof_t;
/* prof_make(): Create a new context object
A context can be cleared by assigning it prof_make() again. */
#define prof_make() ((prof_t){ 0, 0 })
/* Timer counter */
extern uint32_t volatile *prof_tcnt;
@ -44,8 +50,8 @@ extern uint32_t volatile *prof_tcnt;
This macro should be called at the start of the context scope. If the
function was already executing then the deepest instance in the stack is
used instead of creating a new counter. */
#define prof_enter(ctx) { \
if(!prof_rec[ctx]++) prof_elapsed[ctx] += *prof_tcnt; \
#define prof_enter(prof) { \
if(!prof.rec++) prof.elapsed += *prof_tcnt; \
}
/* prof_leave(): Stop counting time for a function
@ -53,15 +59,25 @@ extern uint32_t volatile *prof_tcnt;
stops if there is no deeper instance of the context in the stack. If there
are not as exactly as many prof_leave()'s as prof_enter()'s then the
resulting time measure will not be relevant at all. */
#define prof_leave(ctx) { \
if(!--prof_rec[ctx]) prof_elapsed[ctx] -= *prof_tcnt; \
#define prof_leave(prof) { \
if(!--prof.rec) prof.elapsed -= *prof_tcnt; \
}
/* prof_clear(): Clear a context's counter
This operation is defined only if the context is not being profiled. */
#define prof_clear(ctx) { \
prof_elapsed[ctx] = 0; \
}
/* prof_exec(): Measure a single block of code
This operation can be used when profiling is not required, and instead
libprof is used to measure the performance of a single bit of code. Use it
like this:
uint32_t elasped_us = prof_exec({
exec_code();
}); */
#define prof_exec(code) ({ \
prof_t prof = prof_make(); \
prof_enter(prof); \
code; \
prof_leave(prof); \
prof_time(prof); \
})
//---
// Post-measurement analysis
@ -69,6 +85,6 @@ extern uint32_t volatile *prof_tcnt;
/* prof_time(): Time spent in a given context, in microseconds
Should only be called when the context is not currently executing. */
uint32_t prof_time(int ctx);
uint32_t prof_time(prof_t prof);
#endif /* LIBPROF_LIBPROF */

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